Findmall.com
 
 


This forum is currently read only. You can not log in or make any changes. This is a temporary situation.




Technology Forum


Welcome! Log In Register
Homemade Detector
Posted by: Smitty II
Date: September 20, 2011 09:01AM
Greetings,

While out using the home made PI detector that I posted a series of posts on I met Ken, another treasure hunter. He is also an engineer and we spent some time talking detectors. During the conversation he said now that you and built the one you have, if you built another one, would you do anything different. I told him, yes; I would add another gain stage and lower the gain in the other stages. He asked me why? I told him that even though the detector works great as it is and I have not experienced any instability, it has very high gain in the last two stages. The higher the gain is in any given stage the higher the probability is for that stage to become unstable under certain conditions. It is possible to build stable super high gain stages with proper compensation but they almost always require a PC board.

For any of you experimenters out there that are interested, I have attached the schematic of what I would do if I did it again. The total gain is the same as the one I am using now but the gain in the individual stages is reduced and there is less chance for things to become unstable.

God Bless and HH!!

Smitty II




avatar
Re: Homemade Detector
Posted by: Sven
Date: September 23, 2011 07:07AM
Hi,
So are you going to build this version?
Inquiring minds want to know......:wink:

Thinking about giving it a shot.
After I figure out Eagle etc to get a board designed.

Re: Homemade Detector
Posted by: Carl-NC
Date: September 24, 2011 10:08AM
The final gain stages are usually set up as integrators so high gain stability is not a problem. You would do better to split the preamp into 2 gain stages, that will make it respond faster and allow you to lower the sample delay.

avatar
Re: Homemade Detector
Posted by: Sven
Date: September 25, 2011 06:08AM
Smitty can you do a revision of your schematic incorporating this?



AKA Berkut 5 (Golden Eagle), Detectorpro Wader, Tek Turbo
Self built PI's --- they work great!!
Free Metal Detector Catalog Downloads etc.:
www.treasurelinx.com

Re: Homemade Detector
Posted by: Smitty II
Date: September 27, 2011 08:34AM
Carl-NC

You are absolutely right and that is why I attached the schematic to my post. The preamp gain is about 200 and then I added an additional gain stage to amplify only the sampled signals, with a gain of 3.3 before the 1st integrator. This way, instead of amplifying the whole preamp output signal I am amplifying only the area of the wave form that I am interested in. You are also right in that high gain integrator stages are not likely to become unstable and start oscillating at high frequencies but under the right conditions they can oscillate at low frequencies and start motor boating. Also the higher the gain in the integrators the more drift there will be with temperature, power and environmental changes. Keeping the gain in the integrators reasonable is also helpful in keeping threshold of the PI operating smoothly.

Thanks for your input Carl, they are good ones and that is basically what I am doing, When I had the gain of the preamp at about 1,000, I could only sample in to about 18 us. With the preamp gain at around 200, I am now sampling in at 10us. It is now a lot more sensitive to small gold targets than it was with the preamp gain at 1,000. With an 8" coil, I can detect a 1.5 Grain flake of gold at about 1 inch in air.

Thanks again for your inputs.

God Bless and HH

Smitty II

Re: Homemade Detector
Posted by: Smitty II
Date: September 27, 2011 08:40AM
Sven,

Actually the schematic that is attached to my post does what Carl was recommending. I think it does it in a little different way than he was thinking but I think the results are the same. It looks like our minds were running along the same track.

God Bless and HH!!

Smitty II

Re: Homemade Detector
Posted by: Smitty II
Date: September 27, 2011 08:44AM
Sven,

Not right now anyway. The original circuit is working very well and I want to get some more experience with it in case I come up with another tweak or two.

God Bless and HH!!

Smitty II

Re: Homemade Detector
Posted by: 6666
Date: September 28, 2011 09:58PM
In one of Carls articles he talks about splitting the typical 5534 pre amp into two low gain stages (uses a max chip)
with a gain of about 33 each. 33k/1k =gain of 33

like this



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 09/28/2011 10:01PM by 6666.




avatar
Re: Homemade Detector
Posted by: mikebg
Date: September 29, 2011 10:22PM
6666, please explain why the C24 has so large capacitance?

Re: Homemade Detector
Posted by: 6666
Date: September 30, 2011 07:43AM
Hi Mike
I have no idea, this is a carl design, I just just cut and pasted it



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 09/30/2011 07:44AM by 6666.

Re: Homemade Detector
Posted by: Smitty II
Date: September 30, 2011 01:46PM
6666,

Carl's circuit is a good approach. I am assuming that the input resistor to the 1st amp is a 1K which would give the first amp a gain of 33. The second stage also has a gain of 33 so that makes the gain through both stages a total of 1,089. My circuit does a similar thing but I didn't split it up in the same ratio. My first stage has a gain of 212 and my second stage has a gain of 3.3 for a total gain of 699. I make up any remaining gain needed in the integrator stages. I like taking the target sample and second sample in between the two stages. It allows close in sampling and then I amplify only the samples in the second stage. I think Carl's circuit would sample in closer if he took the target and second sample between his two stages like I did.

I like kicking around ideas like this. It is interesting to see different approaches.

God Bless and HH!!

Smitty II

Re: Homemade Detector
Posted by: Smitty II
Date: September 30, 2011 01:52PM
Mikebg,

I think I can answer your question. The large caps are to filter out any noise that might be on the power supplies that are used with the trimmer adjustment to set the zero output level on the second amplifer in Carl's circuit. They help keep any noise from getting on the target signal.

God Bless!!

Smitty II

Re: Homemade Detector
Posted by: 6666
Date: September 30, 2011 04:57PM
Added a bit more of the cct to see value



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 09/30/2011 05:10PM by 6666.




avatar
Re: Homemade Detector
Posted by: mikebg
Date: October 01, 2011 10:17PM
Quote
Smitty II

I think I can answer your question. The large caps are to filter out any noise that might be on the power supplies that are used with the trimmer adjustment to set the zero output level on the second amplifer in Carl's circuit. They help keep any noise from getting on the target signal.

Smitty II

Smitty, my question is only for capacitor C24 connected in feedback of the second stage parallel to 33k resistor. At capacitance 0.47uF (shown in the circuit), it forms a timeconstant 15 ms or cutoff frequency 10Hz. However Carl showed that we can build an amplifier with timeconstant 3.3us or cutoff frequency 48 kHz.
http://www.geotech1.com/forums/showthread.php?t=18049

Re: Homemade Detector
Posted by: Carl-NC
Date: October 02, 2011 01:58PM
You will gain more sampling speed by reducing the preamp gain, 212 is a bit high. That is the purpose of 2 low gain stages. With the gain split as 33-33 (or 26-26 if you choose) there should be no advantage in moving the second stage after the samplers.

The C24=0.47u in my schematic is probably a copy-paste remnant. You would normally use 100-1000pF.

- Carl